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Zer da torlojua

Denbora: 2020-07-10 Iruzkina: 41

A screw, or bolt, is a type of fastener, typically made of metal, and characterized by a helical ridge, known as a male thread (external thread) or just thread, wrapped around a cylinder. Some screw threads are designed to mate with a complementary thread, known as a female thread (internal thread), often in the form of a nut or an object that has the internal thread formed into it. Other screw threads are designed to cut a helical groove in a softer material as the screw is inserted. The most common uses of  Screws  are to hold objects together and to position objects.

Torlojuak ia beti izango du burua mutur batean, bereziki eratutako forma bat duena, tresna batekin biratu edo gidatu ahal izateko. Torlojuak gidatzeko tresna ohikoen artean bihurkinak eta giltzak daude. Burua torlojuaren gorputza baino handiagoa izan ohi da. Horrek torlojua luzera baino sakonago eramaten du eta errodadura gainazala ematen du. Salbuespenak daude; adibidez, Gurdiaren torlojuak have a domed head that is not designed to be driven; set screws often have a head smaller than the outer diameter of the screw; J- Bolts  have a J-shaped head which is not designed to be driven, but rather is usually sunk into concrete allowing it to be used as an anchor bolt. The cylindrical portion of the screw from the underside of the head to the tip is known as the shank; it may be fully threaded or partially threaded.[1] The distance between each thread is called the "pitch".

The majority of screws are tightened by clockwise rotation, which is termed a right-hand thread; a common mnemonic device for remembering this when working with screws or bolts is "righty-tighty, lefty-loosey." Screws with left-hand threads are used in exceptional cases. For example, when the screw will be subject to counterclockwise torque (which would work to undo a right-hand thread), a left-hand-threaded screw would be an appropriate choice. The left side pedal of a bicycle has a left-hand thread.

More generally, screw may mean any helical device, such as a clamp, a micrometer, a ship's propeller or an Archimedes' screw water pump.


Torlojua eta torlojua bereiztea
Gurdiaren torlojua, intxaur karratua
Egurrezko torlojua hexazalezko azkoina eta garbigailua

There is no universally accepted distinction between a screw and a bolt. A simple distinction that is often true, although not always, is that a bolt passes through a substrate and takes a nut on the other side, whereas a screw takes no nut because it threads directly into the substrate. Machinery's Handbook describes the distinction as follows:

Boltxo bat kanpoko hariztapen bat da, muntatutako piezen zuloetan sartzeko diseinatuta eta, normalean, intxaur bat torlojatuz estutu edo askatu nahi da. Torlojua kanpoko hari lotzailea da, muntatutako piezen zuloetan sartzeko gai dena, barne-hari preformatu batekin lotzeko edo hari propioa eratzeko eta burua estutzeko edo askatzeko. Sudurra torlojua torloju bat da. (Adibidez: Buruko biribilak, Pistako torlojuaktorloju bolatxoak.) Kanpoko hari finkagailu bat, hari forma duena, debekua duen intxaurraren luzera duen hari zuzen bat muntatzea debekatzen duena. (Adibidez: Egurrezko torlojuak, Tapping torlojuak.) [2]

Bereizketa hau ASME B18.2.1ekin eta torloju [3] [4] eta boltatzeko hiztegi definizio batzuekin bat dator. [5] [6] [7]

The issue of what is a screw and what is a bolt is not completely resolved with Machinery's Handbook distinction, however, because of confounding terms, the ambiguous nature of some parts of the distinction, and usage variations.[8][not in citation given] Some of these issues are discussed below:
Makina torlojuak

ASME standards specify a variety of "Machine Screws"[9] in diameters ranging up to 0.75 in (19.05 mm). These fasteners are often used with   Nuts  as well as driven into tapped holes. They might be considered a screw or a bolt based on the Machinery's Handbook distinction. In practice, they tend to be mostly available in smaller sizes and the smaller sizes are referred to as screws or less ambiguously as machine screws, although some kinds of machine screw can be referred to as stove bolts.
Hex txapelazko torlojuak

ASME B18.2.1-1996 estandarrak zehaztu du Hex Cap torlojuak 0.25–3 (6.35–76.20 mm) diametrokoak dira. Lotura hauek oso antzekoak dira Hexako boltxeak. They differ mostly in that they are manufactured to tighter tolerances than the corresponding bolts. Machinery's Handbook refers parenthetically to these fasteners as "Finished Hexazko torlojuak".[10] Reasonably, these fasteners might be referred to as bolts, but based on the US government document Distinguishing Bolts from Screws, the US government might classify them as screws because of the tighter tolerance.[11] In 1991 responding to an influx of counterfeit fasteners Congress passed PL 101-592[12] "Fastener Quality Act" This resulted in the rewriting of specifications by the ASME B18 committee. B18.2.1[13] was re-written and as a result they eliminated the "Finished Hex Bolts" and renamed them the "Hex Cap Screw"-a term that had existed in common usage long before, but was now also being codified as an official name for the ASME B18 standard.
Lug torlojuak eta buru-torlojuak

These terms refer to fasteners that are designed to be threaded into a tapped hole that is in part of the assembly and so based on the Machinery's Handbook distinction they would be screws. Here common terms are at variance with Machinery's Handbook distinction.[14][15]
Torloju Lag
Lag torlojuak
Alboko ikuspegia

Lag torlojuak (atzeko torlojuak ere deitzen zaizkio, okerrak diren arren) egurrezko torloju handiak dira funtsean. Buru karratuko atzeko torlojuak eta hexazko buruetarako torlojuak ASME B18.2.1 arauek estaltzen dituzte eta burua, normalean, kanpoko hex. Hankadako torloju arrunta diametroak (1 mm 4 mm) edo luzeagoa (6.35 1 mm) eta 1⁄4 pulgora (31.75 1 mm) edo luzeagoa izan dezake, eta luzeagoak, hari lodiarekin. zurezko torlojua edo xafla-xafla-hari formakoa (baina handiagoa).

Materialak karbonozko altzairuzko substratuak dira normalean zinka galbanizatzeko estaldura batekin (korrosioarekiko erresistentziagatik). Zink estaldura distiratsua (electroplated), horia (electroplated) edo hot beroa dip galvanized izan daiteke. Lagun boltsoak zur-markoa elkarrekin lotzeko erabiltzen dira, makinaria oinak egurrezko zoruetara lotzeko eta arotzeria astunerako beste aplikazioetarako. Atzerapen adjektiboa horrelako finkagailu nagusien erabilera batetik etorri zen: upelen estalkiak eta antzeko beste atalak.

These fasteners are "screws" according to the Machinery's Handbook criteria, and the obsolescent term "lag bolt" has been replaced by "lag screw" in the Handbook.[17] However, in the minds of many tradesmen, they are "bolts", simply because they are large, with hex or square heads. In the United Kingdom and Australia, lag screws are known as coach screws.
AEBetako gobernuaren arauak

The US government made an effort to formalize the difference between a bolt and a screw because different tariffs apply to each.[18] The document seems to have no significant effect on common usage and does not eliminate the ambiguous nature of the distinction between screws and bolts for some threaded fasteners. The document also reflects (although it probably did not originate) significant confusion of terminology usage that differs between the legal/statutory/regulatory community and the fastener industry. The legal/statutory/regulatory wording uses the terms "coarse" and "fine" to refer to the tightness of the tolerance range, referring basically to "high-quality" or "low-quality", but this is a poor choice of terms, because those terms in the fastener industry have a different meaning (referring to the steepness of the helix's lead).
Gai historikoa

USS eta SAE arau zaharrek tapoi torlojuak finkatzen zituzten bururaino harira zeuden zurtoinak eta boltxoak partzialki irakurri gabeko zurtoinekin lotzen ziren bezala. [19] Arau honek erlazioa intxaur bat hartzen duen ideiarekin erlazioa garbia da (izan ere, zurtoinaren sekretu gabeko atala, deitzen zaion gripari, substratutik pasatu behar zela uste zen). Gaur egun zaharkituta dagoen bereizketa da.
Hizkuntza kontrolatua eta hizkuntza naturala kontrolatuta

The distinctions above are enforced in the controlled vocabulary of standards organizations. Nevertheless, there are sometimes differences between the controlled vocabulary and the natural language use of the words by machinists, auto mechanics and  Others . These differences reflect linguistic evolution shaped by the changing of technology over centuries. The words bolt and screw have both existed since before today's modern mix of fastener types existed, and the natural usage of those words has evolved retronymously in response to the technological change. (That is, the use of words as names for objects changes as the objects themselves change.) Non-threaded fasteners predominated until the advent of practical, inexpensive screw-cutting in the early 19th century. The basic meaning of the word screw has long involved the idea of a helical screw thread, but the Archimedes screw and the screw gimlet (like a corkscrew) preceded the fastener.

Bolatxo hitza oso hitz zaharra ere bada, eta mendeetan erabili zen beste alde batetik substratutik pasatzen ziren metalezko hagatxoak aipatzeko, maiz ez diren haririk gabeko bitartekoen bidez (topaketa, burdineria soldatzeko, estalkia, zuria, etab.). ). Zentzu hori atearen boltxo baten edo gurutze-boluaren zentzuarekin duen lotura nabaria da. Mendean, torloju hariaren bidez lotzen diren bolatxoak maiz torloju deitzen zitzaien kontrako konexioetan enborrak lotzeko.

In common usage, the distinction (not rigorous) is often that screws are smaller than bolts, and that screws are generally tapered while bolts are not. For example, cylinder head bolts are called "bolts" (at least in North American usage) despite the fact that by some definitions they ought to be called "screws". Their size and their similarity to a bolt that would take a nut seem linguistically to overrule any other factors in this natural word choice proclivity.
Beste bereizketa batzuk

Bolts have been defined as headed fasteners having external threads that meet an exacting, uniform bolt thread specification (such as ISO metric screw thread M, MJ, Unified Thread Standard UN, UNR, and UNJ) such that they can accept a non-tapered nut. Screws are then defined as headed, externally threaded fasteners that do not meet the above definition of bolts.[citation needed] These definitions of screw and bolt eliminate the ambiguity of the Machinery's handbook distinction. And it is for that reason, perhaps, that some people favor them. However, they are neither compliant with common usage of the two words nor are they compliant with formal specifications.

Balizko bereizketa da torlojua hari propioa mozteko diseinatuta dagoela; ez du zertan sartzearen edo osagaiaren aurkako aldean sartu beharrik. Torloju honen definizioa estalki estaldurarako, torloju auto-zulagarriak eta estutzeko torlojuak, esaterako, estalkien teilak, gailurrak, estalkiak eta torlojuak autofiltzatzeko garapenak kontuan hartuta, teilatuaren torlojuak estaltzen dira. buztina, bizkarreko torlojuak, etab. Bestalde, torlojua hari-diseinu bera duen aurrez hornitutako entxufe (edo azkoin) batek onartzeko diseinatuta dago.


aurreko: RIVET

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