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Wäschmaschinn (Hardware)

Zäit: 2020-07-16 Kommentéieren: 96

Eng Wäschmaschinn ass eng dënn Platte (typesch scheiwefërmeg) mat engem Lach (typesch an der Mëtt) déi normalerweis benotzt gëtt fir d'Laascht vun engem geschniddene Befestigung ze verdeelen, sou wéi eng Schraube oder e Nout. Aner Utilisatioune sinn als Spacer, Fréijoer (belleville Wäscher, Wave Wäschmaschinn), wear pad, virausgelooss Indikatiounsapparat, Spärenapparat, a fir d'Vibratioun ze reduzéieren (Gummi washer). Washers normalerweis e baussenzegen Duerchmiesser (OD) ongeféier zweemol d'Breet vun hirem banneschten Duerchmiesser (ID).

Washers si meeschtens Metal oder Plastik. Héichwäerteg bolted Gelenker erfuerderen gehärzt Stahlschwäizer fir de Verloscht vu Virbelaaschtung wéinst Brinelling ze vermeiden nodeems de Dréimoment applizéiert gëtt.

Gummi- oder Faser-Dichtungen, déi an Krunn (oder Fauceten, oder Ventile) benotzt ginn fir de Floss vum Waasser ze stoppen, ginn heiansdo als vaskesch bezeechent; awer, wärend se ähnlech ausgesinn, Wäschmaschinnen a Dichtungen si meeschtens fir verschidde Funktiounen entworf an anescht gemaach.

Washers sinn och wichteg fir galvanesch Korrosioun ze vermeiden, besonnesch duerch Isoléierend Stahl Schrauwen aus Aluminiumsoberflächen.

D'Origine vum Wuert ass onbekannt; déi éischt notéiert Notzung vum Wuert war am Joer 1346, awer déi éischte Kéier wéi seng Definitioun opgeholl gouf am Joer 1611. [1]

Aart a Form

Washers kënnen an dräi Aarte kategoriséiert ginn;

Plain washers, déi eng Belaaschtung verbreeden, a vermeit datt Schued un der Uewerfläch fixéiert gëtt, oder eng Zort Isolatioun bitt wéi elektresch
Fréijoer Washers, déi axial Flexibilitéit hunn a gi benotzt fir d'Léisung vu Befestigung wéinst Schwéngungen ze verhënneren
Sperrholzplazen, déi d'Befestigung vu Befestigung verhënneren, andeems d'Rotatioun vun der Befestigungsapparat net verschrauft; Spuerbicher sinn normalerweis och Fréijoerswäscher.

Den Amerikaneschen National Standards Institute (ANSI) bitt Standarden fir allgemeng Benotzung Flaach Washers. Type A is a series of steel washers with broad tolerances, where precision is NOT critical. Type B is a series of flat washers with tighter tolerances where outside diameters are categorized as 'Narrow', 'Regular' or 'Wide' for specific bolt sizes.[2]

'Type' is not to be confused with 'form' (but often is). The British Standard for Metric Series Metal Washers (BS4320) written in 1968 coined the term 'form'. The forms go from A to D for Bright Metal and denote outside diameter and thickness. They can be summarised as -

Form A: Normalen Duerchmiesser, normal Déck
Form B: Normalen Duerchmiesser, Liichtdicke
Form C: Groussen Duerchmiesser, normal Déck
Form D: Groussen Duerchmiesser, Liichtdicke
D'Formen E bis G bezéien sech op Schwaarzmetallwäschen.

Einfach washers

A plain washer (or 'flat washer') is a flat annulus or ring, often of metal, used to spread the load of a screwed fastening. Additionally, a plain washer may be used when the hole is a larger diameter than the fixing nut.[3][4]

Eng Fenderwäschter ass eng flaach Wäschmaschinn mat engem besonnesche groussen Duerchmiesser am Verhältnis zum zentrale Lach. Si ginn allgemeng benotzt fir d'Laascht op dënnem Blech ze verbreeden, a ginn no hirem Gebrauch op Autosfender genannt. Si kënnen och benotzt ginn fir eng Verbindung zu engem Lach ze maachen dat duerch Rost oder Verschleiung vergréissert gouf.

E Pennewäscher ass eng flaach Wäschmaschinn mat engem groussen baussenzegen Duerchmiesser, a Groussbritannien. Den Numm kënnt ursprénglech aus der Gréisst vum alen britesche Penny. Am UK bezéien déi meescht Industrien all grouss OD Washers als Penny washers, och wann den OD sou vill wéi zweemol sou grouss wéi den alen Penny ass. Si ginn an déiselwecht Uwendungen benotzt wéi Fender Wäschmaschinn.

Eng sphäresch Wäschmaschinn ass Deel vun enger selbstpassend Nout; et ass eng Wäschmaschinn mat enger duerchgestrahlter Uewerfläch, déi entwéckelt ass a Verbindung mat enger Matvermutter benotzt ginn fir fir bis zu e puer Grad vun der Verdeelung tëscht Deeler ze korrigéieren.

Eng Verankerungsplack oder Wandwäsch ass eng grouss Plack oder Schiefmaschinn verbonnen mat engem Bindestab oder Bolt. Ankerplacke ginn op Baussewänn vu Mauerwierk Gebaier benotzt, fir strukturell Verstäerkung. Sichtbar sinn vill Ankerplacke gemaach an engem Stil deen dekorativ ass. [5]

Eng Dréimomentwäscher gëtt an Holzaarbecht a Kombinatioun mat enger Karussell benotzt; et huet e quadratescht Lach am Zentrum, an deem d'Garusschnouer Quadrat passt. Zänn oder Stréckelen op der Wäschmaschinn béien an d'Holz a vermeit datt de Kugel fräi dréint wann e Mutter gespannt gëtt. [6]
Fréijoer a Spuerwäscher

Belleville Washers, och bekannt als verstoppte Fréijoerswäscher oder konesch Wascheger, hunn eng liicht konisch Form, déi eng Axialkraaft liwwert wann se deforméiert sinn.

E gebogenen Disc Fréijoer ass ähnlech wéi eng Belleville, ausser der Wäschmaschinn ass an enger eenzeger Richtung gebogen, dofir ginn et nëmme véier Kontaktpunkten. Am Géigesaz zu Belleville Washers hunn se nëmme Liichtdrock. [7]

Wave Washers have a "wave" in the axial direction, which provides spring pressure when compressed. Wave washers, of comparable size, do not produce as much force as Belleville washers. In Germany, they are sometimes used as lock washers, however they are less effective than other choices.[a][8]

A split washer or a spring lock washer is a ring split at one point and bent into a helical shape. This causes the washer to exert a spring force between the fastener's head and the substrate, which maintains the washer hard against the substrate and the bolt thread hard against the nut or substrate thread, creating more friction and resistance to rotation. Applicable standards are ASME B18.21.1, DIN 127B, and United States Military Standard NASM 35338 (formerly MS 35338 and AN-935).[9] Spring washers are a left hand helix and allow the thread to be tightened in a right hand direction only, i.e. a clockwise direction. When a left hand turning motion is applied, the raised edge bites into the underside of the bolt or nut and the part that it is bolted to, thus resisting turning. Therefore spring washers are ineffective on left hand threads and hardened surfaces. Also, they are not to be used in conjunction with a flat washer under the spring washer, as this isolates the spring washer from biting into the component that will resist turning. Where a flat washer is required to span a large hole in a component, a nyloc nut (nylon insert) must be used.

D'Benotzung an Effektivitéit vun Fréijoer Lock Washers has been in debate of late, with some publications advising against their use on the grounds that, when tight, the washer is flat against the substrate and gives no more resistance to rotation than a normal washer at the same torque. NASA researchers have gone as far as to say "In summary, a lockwasher of this type is useless for locking." [10][11] However, a spring washer will continue to hold the bolt against the substrate and maintain friction when loosened slightly, whereas a plain washer will not.[b]

A toothed lock washer, also known as a serrated washer or star washer,[8] has serrations that extend radially inward or outward to bite into the bearing surface. This type of washer is especially effective as a lock washer when used with a soft substrate, such as aluminium or plastic,[8] and can resist rotation more than a plain washer on hard surfaces, as the tension between washer and the surface is applied over a much smaller area (the teeth). There are four types: internal, external, combination, and countersunk. The internal style has the serrations along the inner edge of the washer, which makes them more aesthetically pleasing.[12] The external style has the serrations around the outer edge, which provides better holding power, because of the greater circumference.[13] The combination style has serrations about both edges, for maximum holding power.[14] The countersunk style is designed to be used with flat-head screws.[15]

Tooth lockwashers are also used for ground bonding where a metal lug or object must be electrically bonded to a surface. The teeth of the washer cut through surface oxides, paints or other finishes and provide a gas-tight conductive path. In these applications the washer is not placed under the head of the screw (or under the nut), it is placed between the surfaces to be bonded. In such applications, the tooth washer does not provide any anti-rotation locking features.[16]

Lock washers, locknuts, jam  Nuts , and thread-locking fluid are ways to prevent vibration from loosening a bolted joint.
Dëngem

The term washer is often applied to various gasket types such as those used to seal the control valve in taps. Crush washers are made of a soft metal such as aluminium or copper and are used to seal fluid or gas connections such as those found in an internal combustion engine.

A shoulder washer is a plain washer type with integral cylindrical sleeve; they are used to keep separate different metal types, and as seals.[17] This term is also used for electrically insulating grommets.[18]
Specialised types

A Keps nut or K-lock nut is a nut with an integral free spinning washer; assembly is easier because the washer is captive.

A top hat washer is a shoulder washer type used in plumbing for tap fitting.

An insulating shoulder washer is used to electrically isolate a mounting screw from the surface it secures. Often made of nylon, these are also made of teflon, PEEK or other plastics to withstand higher temperatures.

A keyed washer has a key to prevent rotation, and is used to lock two nuts in place, without allowing the torque applied to the top nut to cause the bottom nut to also rotate (such as in a threaded headset on a bicycle).

virdrun: näischt

Nächst: Rivet